Gastric bypass, medically known as Roux en-Y gastric bypass or RYGB is an advanced hybrid surgical procedure, which is adopted by many as an effective measure for losing excessive weight. This is now considered to be the mainstay bariatric surgery procedure to which doctors compare all other optional procedures.
This procedure is there existing close to half a century now, but was in various forms and now streamlined to its most user-friendly and effective form. Now, gastric bypass is performed laparoscopically, which decreased the complications and risks involved in this procedure to a big extent.
Gastric bypass procedure
The surgery involves creation of a tiny gastric pouch and rerouting the small intesintal path to a negligible extent than with duodenal switch (DS). With this approach, there is only a much lesser metabolic side effects and it also lowers any complication profiles. Gastric bypass is similar to duodenal switch in many aspects; however in terms of resolving other medical comorbidities like diabetes, it helps in changing the hormonal milieu as a result of the intestinal bypass.
Even though gastric bypass is a standard procedure, there may be some differences on how different surgeons perform it. There may be differences in pouch creation, doing anastomoses, and minor alterations to the limb lengths of the intestine. There are a few subtypes exist, but altogether the fundamental objective of RYGB is the same.
However, the two basic variations of RYGB the patients needed to be aware of are;
- Mini gastric bypass and
- Distal gastric bypass
Mini gastric bypass is also called as loop gastric bypass and mini-sleeve bypass. This is lightly different from the fundamental RYGB procedure as biliary juices will not be diverted away from long gastric pouch in this procedure. As a result of it, bile reflux can be developed. As there are more clinical studies to be done for this, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery put performing this procedure on hold.
Distal gastric bypass is another standard method, which is proposed as a primary procedure or as a secondary rescue surgery if there is a failed RYGB. A considerable degree of intestinal re-routing is carried out in this procedure as in case of DS. However, the stomach size will remain smaller in this procedure just as in case of standard gastric bypass.
Standard RYGB benefits
The standard RYGB procedure offers many benefits as;
- Loss of about 60% to 80% of overweight.
- As it causes the feel of fullness early, hunger is naturally decreased.
- Malabsorption is effectively blocked with the procedure.
- RYGB also offers add-on benefits of improvement in allied medical conditions as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and gastroesophageal reflux disease etc.
- Increase the life expectancy of the patients.
However, to enjoy the positive benefits of the surgery, it is essential to adjust the lifestyle, diet, and exercise regimen of the patient. Even though there is no strict restrictions after the recovery period, it is essential for the patients to maintain a healthy lifestyle to maintain the weight loss benefits.